11:00 - 11:18
Security Managers Are Not The Enemy Either
1Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Deutschland; 2Technische Universität Darmstadt, Deutschland
Security managers are leading employees whose decisions shape security measures and thus influence the everyday work of all users in the corresponding organizations. To understand how security managers handle user requirements and behavior, we conducted semi-structured interviews with seven security managers from large-scale German companies. Our results indicate that due to the absence of organizational structures that include users into security development processes, security managers unintentionally obtain a negative view on users. Their distrust towards users leads to creation of technical security measures that cannot be controlled by users in any way. However, as previous research has repeatedly shown, rigid security measures lead to frustration and discouragement of the users, and also to creative (but usually insecure) methods of security circumvention. We conclude that in order to break through this vicious cycle, security managers need organizational structures, methods and tools that facilitate systematic feedback from the users.
11:18 - 11:36
“If you want, I can store the encrypted password.” A Password-Storage Field Study with Freelance Developers
Universität Bonn, Deutschland
In 2017 and 2018, Naiakshina et al. studied in a lab setting whether computer science students need to be told to write code that stores passwords securely. The authors’ results showed that, without explicit prompting, none of the students implemented secure password storage. When asked about this oversight, a common answer was that they would have implemented secure storage - if they were creating code for a company. To shed light on this possible confusion, we conducted a mixed-methods field study with developers. We hired freelance developers online and gave them a similar password storage task followed by a questionnaire to gain additional insights into their work. From our research, we offer two contributions. First of all, we reveal that, similar to the students, freelancers do not store passwords securely unless prompted, they have misconceptions about secure password storage, and they use outdated methods. Secondly, we discuss the methodological implications of using freelancers and students in developer studies.
11:36 - 11:54
Cognitive Aids in Acute Care: Investigating How Cognitive Aids Affect and Support In-hospital Emergency Teams
1Institut Mensch-Computer-Medien, Psychologische Ergonomie, Deutschland; 2Universitätsklinikum Würzburg
Cognitive aids – artefacts that support a user in the completion of a task at the time – have raised great interest to support healthcare staff during medical emergencies. However, the mechanisms of how cognitive aids support or affect staff remain understudied. We describe the iterative development of a tablet-based cognitive aid application to support in-hospital resuscitation team leaders. We report a summative evaluation of two different versions of the application. Finally, we outline the limitations of current explanations of how cognitive aids work and suggest an approach based on embodied cognition. We discuss how cognitive aids alter the task of the team leader (distributed cognition), the importance of the present team situation (socially situated), and the result of the interaction between mind and environment (sensorimotor coupling). Understanding and considering the implications of introducing cognitive aids may help to increase acceptance and effectiveness of cognitive aids and eventually improve patient safety.
11:54 - 12:12
Using Time and Space Efficiently in Driverless Cars: Findings of a Co-Design Study
1Universität Siegen, Deutschland; 2Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg
The alternative use of travel time is one of the widely discussed benefits of driverless cars. We therefore conducted 14 co-design sessions to examine how people manage their time, to determine how they perceive the value of time in driverless cars and to derive design implications. Our findings suggest that driverless mobility will affect both people's use of travel time as well as their time management in general. The participants repeatedly stated the desire of completing tasks while traveling to save time for activities that are normally neglected in their everyday life. Using travel time efficiently requires using car space efficiently, too. We found out that the design concept of tiny houses could serve as common design pattern to deal with the limited space within cars and support diverse needs.
12:12 - 12:30
Clairbuoyance: Improving Directional Perception for Swimmers
1University of Stuttgart, Deutschland; 2Lodz University of Technology, Polen; 3LMU München; 4Utrecht University, Niederlande
While we usually have no trouble with orientation, our sense of direction frequently fails in the absence of a frame of reference. Open-water swimmers raise their heads to look for a reference point, since disorientation might result in exhaustion or even drowning. In this paper, we report on Clairbuoyance — a system that provides feedback about the swimmer's orientation through lights mounted on swimming goggles. We conducted an experiment with two versions of Clairbuoyance: Discrete signals relative to a chosen direction, and continuous signals providing a sense of absolute direction. Participants swam to a series of targets. Proficient swimmers preferred the discrete mode; novice users the continuous one. We determined that both versions of Clairbuoyance enabled reaching the target faster than without the help of the system, although the discrete mode increased error. Based on the results, we contribute insights for designing directional guidance feedback for swimmers.